ALL of the Ballymartin females have always been out-wintered, in recent years on kale, and calved out-side. The fact that there is such a stable herd of cows with no new females bought in since the foundation of the herd and with no A.I used for 30 years has created a genetic microclimate in the herd that was noted by John Shirley (formerly Enfield A.I). This has created a genetic inheritance within the herd of ease of calving, strong maternal characteristics, general hardiness, thrive, good milk that has also been noted by many other experts. Calves that are able to be calved unaided and lively enough to get up and be suckling within minutes of being born, this resilience and independence can be seen in the worst of weather, wet cold, sleety weather. It is true performance testing.